How Coronavirus Kill Infected Person and Its Systematic Analysis

April 22 2020 | India | Advertising | News | By Dr. S. K. Maharana

 

The number of confirmed cases of COVID19 reached to 2.5 million with a death of 180,000 people around the world. Most common symptoms appear in coronavirus infected person is the pneumonia/flu symptoms. Few infected people don’t show any symptoms and they recovered automatically due to their strong immune systems. Few more infected people show asymptomatic (irregular symptoms), which is difficult to identify until the COVID19 test report comes for such persons.

 

At present, it’s a global challenge to focus on the understanding of coronavirus infection to human, how it damage to various organs inside the infected person is still not understood. Once we completely understand the molecular mechanism of infection to the human body, then it help us to design a proper drug and vaccine for the virus. There is no drug or vaccine for this COVID19 at this moment. Most of the country are working fast for a drug development or vaccine development for COVID19. Its deadly pandemic of the 21st century already infected millions.

 

Beginning of Infection

 

The infection starts easily by come in close contact with the infected person, their Sneezing droplet, Coughing droplets and touching the infected person touched surface or objects. Once a person infected with coronavirus, few persons show symptoms from days 2 onwards, but most the symptoms are appear from 11 days onwards from the date of infection. This infection become several or critical stage, when the infected person reaches 14 days of incubation periods of coronavirus.

At the moment, we have less information on how this coronavirus infected the human body organs, as we know the primary target organ is Lungs. This is a new virus and we don’t know the molecular mechanism of infection to human organs. What we know till today is that, this virus enters through the nose and throat before its spread across the lungs. During the first entry, the SAR-Cov2 virus target the ACE2 enzyme of the cell membrane, which allows things to enter into the cell body. These ACE2 enzyme are higher number in the nose or throat cells, which become an entry point for this coronavirus. Once it enters into the cell body, it hijacks the whole cell and multiple itself in large number for its next target cells. This virus remains silent in the first week of the infection till it reaches a peak and sufficient enough for targeting the body organs. During this first week of incubation, if the infected person immune system recognizes this coronavirus, then the infected person has high chance of survivability, as the few persons are able produces antibodies for COVID19 due to their strong immune system.

 

Why Lungs?

Why this coronavirus targets the lung as primary target organ? Lungs cells are more transparent and having high number of ACE2 enzyme in the cell membrane, which make them more permeable for the oxygen exchange into the blood and exchange out of carbon dioxide from the blood.  These lungs cells are very easy targets of coronavirus. Once they enter from nose or throat, then next is lung’s alveoli, the severity and symptoms of the person starts with high fever, dry cough, headaches and body pains. Most of the symptoms starts soon after the infection of lungs cells.

 

Once the virus reached the lungs and it starts its severe damage to cells and as a consequence the lungs slowly increases it mucus level higher as a byproduct of virus damage. Damage of lungs leads infected person difficulty in breathing and at this condition patients desperately needed a ventilator. At this stage, infected person gets less oxygen into their blood stream, which leads to multiple organ failures. The X-ray of lungs look fully dark patch due to the high level of mucus inside the lungs. Failure of the lungs leads to the multiple organ damages due to less oxygen supply, and at this moment, the brain get effected strongly.

 

 

Targeted Organs – (Heart, Intestine/Guts, Liver, Kidney, Brain)

Few COVID19 patients shows other organ damages, like heart failure, liver damage, Intestine /Gut damage, kidney failure and brain damages too. These organs have higher number of ACE2 enzyme molecules in their cell membrane, which make them more venerable to the coronavirus.

More than 20% of coronavirus patients shows a symptom of diarrhea, which shows that virus has indirectly or directly targets the intestine cells, which leads the patience into a diarrhea symptom. These patience stool report shows that they have 53% viral RNA in their stool represent the damages of gut cells.

Similarly, many patience reported with liver damage, which is due to the inflammation caused coronavirus and their target to cytokine molecules. However, more than 30-60% patience in the Wuhan, China has reported of kidney failure. COVID19 patience not only shows one organ failure but its shows that multiple organs are fighting back with coronavirus. Few required the ventilator due to lungs not able to allow the patience to breath properly. Few more required the dialysis due to failure of kidney. Few more infected person required the diarrhea control.  

 

Heart Strick & Brain Damage

Few coronaviruses infected person shows a heart failure, as these virus cause damage to the blood vessels and also blood clotting leads to the heart failure. More than 20 – 40% infected person have this heart failure, 5-10% person shows neurological disorders, like failure in loss of smell, due to the damage in the nose cell, along with damage in the front cortex in the forebrain. As the brains cells too have ACE2 enzyme in their cell membrane, which attract these coronaviruses to enter the neuron cell and then damage them too.

 

These are the preliminary reported observed by the various doctor in the various different hospitals across the world, reporting how server this coronavirus effects the human organs failure leads to more mortality of infection person.

 

 

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